China-India Relations in 2010

The year 2010 marked the 60th anniversary of diplomatic relations between the People's Republic of China and the Republic of India. The strategic and cooperative partnership for peace and prosperity between the two sides maintained a good momentum of sound and steady growth, and friendly exchanges and cooperation further expanded across the board.

The two countries had frequent high-level exchanges and growing political mutual trust. In April, President Hu Jintao had a bilateral meeting with Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on the sidelines of the second BRICs leaders meeting in Brasilia. In October, Premier Wen Jiabao met with Prime Minister Singh on the margins of the East Asian leaders' meetings in Hanoi, Vietnam.

From 15 to 17 December, at the invitation of Prime Minister Singh, Premier Wen paid an official visit to India. During the visit, Premier Wen held talks with Prime Minister Singh, met with President Pratibha Patil, Vice President Mohhamad Hamid Ansari, President of the National Congress Party Sonia Gandhi and opposition leader Sushma Swaraji, and had a courtesy meeting with Minister of External Affairs S. M. Krishna. Premier Wen delivered an important policy speech entitled Working Together for New Glories of the Oriental Civilization at the Indian Council of World Affairs, and attended with Prime Minister Singh the celebrations marking 60 years of China-India diplomatic ties and closing ceremony of Festival of China 2010 in India. Premier Wen also addressed the opening ceremony of the China-India Business Cooperation Summit, met with representatives of Chinese and Indian cultural communities, had friendly exchanges with students of Tagore International School and presented awards to friendly personages from India.

During the visit, the two sides issued the Joint Communiqué Between the People's Republic of China and the Republic of India, and agreed that there is enough space in the world for the development of both China and India and enough areas for the two countries to cooperate. The two sides decided to strengthen strategic communication, promote practical cooperation, expand people-to-people exchanges, and further deepen and enrich their strategic and cooperative partnership for peace and prosperity. They decided to launch the mechanisms of regular mutual visits by heads of state and government and annual mutual visits by foreign ministers, laid out the new target of US$100 billion of bilateral trade by 2015, and announced 2011 as the Year of China-India Exchanges. The two sides signed a range of important documents including the Memorandum of Understanding on Green Technology Cooperation between the Government of the People's Republic of China and the Government of the Republic of India, the Program of Cultural Exchanges between the Government of the People's Republic of China and the Government of the Republic of India for 2010-2012, the Memorandum of Understanding between the Ministry of Water Resources, the People's Republic of China and the Ministry of Water Resources, the Republic of India upon Provision of Hydrological Information of the Langqen Zangbo/Sutlej River in Flood Season by China to India, the Memorandum of Understanding between the State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China and the Ministry of External Affairs of the Republic of India on Media Exchanges, the Memorandum of Understanding between the China Banking Regulatory Commission and the Reserve Bank of India, and the Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation between the China Development Bank and the Export-Import Bank of India. The two sides also signed commercial deals of US$16 billion covering electricity, pharmaceuticals, aquatic food and other fields.

Other important bilateral exchanges included: In March, Vice Premier Hui Liangyu visited India, met with Prime Minister Singh, and held talks with Minister of State of Environment and Forests Jairam Ramesh. In April, CPPCC Vice Chairman Sun Jiazheng paid a visit to India and attended the opening ceremony of the Festival of China 2010 in India. The fourth meeting of the expert-level mechanism on China-India cross-border rivers was held in New Delhi. In September, Vice Minister of the United Front Work Department of the CPC Central Committee and Party Secretary and First Vice Chairman of the All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce Quan Zhezhu led a delegation to India.

In May, Indian President Patil paid a state visit to China and visited Beijing, Shanghai and Luoyang. She held talks with President Hu Jintao, and met with NPC Chairman Wu Bangguo, Premier Wen and CPPCC Chairman Jia Qinglin respectively. Vice President Xi Jinping had a brief meeting with President Patil and they attended the reception marking the 60th anniversary of China-India diplomatic ties. Indian Minister of State of Environment and Forests Jairam Ramesh attended the International Cooperative Conference on Green Economy and Climate Change in Beijing. In July, Special Envoy of Indian Prime Minister and National Security Advisor Shivshankar Menon visited China and delivered a letter from Prime Minister Singh to Premier Wen. Prime Minister Singh stated in the letter India's commitment to building a sound, comprehensive and mutually beneficial partnership with China and readiness to work with China to elevate their relationship to a new height at bilateral, regional and global levels. Prime Minister Singh extended an official invitation to Premier Wen to visit India within 2010. From 29 to 30 November, the 14th round of special representatives' meeting on the boundary question was held in Beijing. China's Special Representative, State Councillor Dai Bingguo, and India's Special Representative, National Security Advisor Shivshankar Menon, attended the meeting. The boundary negotiation continued to move forward and the border areas maintained peace and tranquility on the whole. In August, India's National Pavilion Day was held at the Shanghai World Expo, and Indian Minister of State of Commerce Jyotiraditya Scindia and Chinese Vice Minister of Commerce Chen Jian attended the event. Indian Minister of Human Resources Kapil Sibal and Minister of Road, Transport and Highways Kamal Nath visited China.

Foreign ministries of the two countries maintained close communication and coordination. In February, foreign ministry officials of the two sides held consultations. In April, Indian External Affairs Minister Krishna visited China. He met with Premier Wen and held talks with Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi. The two foreign ministers signed the Agreement on the Establishment of the Direct Secure Telephone Link between the Chinese Premier and the Indian Prime Minister, and attended the event for the launch of a picture album and envelope commemorating 60 years of diplomatic relations. Minister Krishna officiated with Chinese Minister of Culture Cai Wu the Festival of India in China. In October, Vice Foreign Minister Cui Tiankai travelled to India for consultation on G-20 affairs. He met with National Security Advisor Shivshankar Menon, Foreign Secretary Nirupama Rao and G-20 Sherpa Montek Singh Ahluwalia. In November, External Affairs Minister Krishna attended the 10th China-Russia-India foreign ministers' meeting in China, and had a bilateral meeting with Foreign Minister Yang. The Fourth China-India Strategic Dialogue was held in Beijing in the same month with the attendance of Vice Foreign Minister Zhang Zhijun and Indian Foreign Secretary Nirupama Rao.

Bilateral trade grew rapidly and economic cooperation expanded into more areas. India was China's major overseas project contracting market, and by the end of 2010, China had signed US$41.576 billion worth of project and labour contracts in India. In January, Indian Minister of Commerce and Industry Anand Sharma travelled to China for the eighth meeting of China-India Joint Group on Trade, Science and Technology. The two sides held the China-India Trade and Investment Cooperation Forum, and signed the Memorandum of Understanding on Extending Trade and Economic Cooperation of the Joint Group on Economy of the Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China and the Ministry of Commerce and Industry of the Republic of India.

Cultural and people-to-people exchanges and cooperation reached a new level. The activities to celebrate the 60th anniversary of diplomatic ties went well. The China Festival in India and the India Festival in China were successfully held. In April, the Chinese Embassy in India held a reception marking the 60 years of diplomatic ties in New Delhi, and Indian Foreign Secretary Nirupama Rao attended the function. The Chinese People's Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries and the Indian Embassy in China co-hosted a reception marking the 60th anniversary of diplomatic relations in Beijing. State Councillor Dai Bingguo and Indian External Affairs Minister Krishna attended the reception. The opening ceremonies of the China Festival in India and the India Festival in China were held in New Delhi and Beijing respectively in the same month. In June, Indian Youth Affairs and Sports Minister Manohar Singh Gill led a 100-member youth delegation to China. In August, the Agreement on the Establishment of the "Rabindranath and China" Gallery Between the Ministry of Culture of the People's Republic of China and the Rabindra Bharati University was signed in Calcutta. According to the Agreement, China would donate RMB800,000 to Rabindra Bharati University and establish the "Rabindranath and China" Gallery in the Tagore Museum. In October, the closing ceremony of the India Festival in China was held in Chengdu, Sichuan. Sichuan Provincial Governor Jiang Jufeng, Assistant Minister of Culture Gao Shuxun and President of the Indian Council for Cultural Relations Karan Singh attended the ceremony. In November, Member of the Secretariat of the Communist Youth League Central Committee Lu Yongzheng led a 100-member youth delegation to India. In December, the closing ceremony of the China Festival in India was held in New Delhi.

The two countries had extensive agreement and maintained sound cooperation on major international and regional issues. Under the framework of such mechanisms as China-India-Russia cooperation, the BRICs and the G-20, China and India kept close communication and cooperation, and coordinated positions on the international financial crisis, climate change, energy and food security and other major issues on behalf of the legitimate interests of developing countries.

In April, Prime Minister Singh and External Affairs Minister Krishna sent letters of sympathy to President Hu and Foreign Minister Yang on the massive Yushu earthquake. In May, Premier Wen and Foreign Minister Yang sent messages of sympathy to Prime Minister Singh and External Affairs Minister Krishna on the tragic Mangalore air crash in Karnataka State.

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