|Hydropower Stations in Northeast China|
Fengman Hydropower Station
The first of the larger hydropower stations in northeast China, this station is 24 kilometers from Jilin on the upper reaches of the No. 2 Songhua River and 250 kilometers away from the Baishan Hydropower Station. Fengman Hydropower Station controls a drainage area of 42,500 square kilometers. As well as generating power and preventing floods, the dam supplies water for irrigation, industrial production, domestic use and the cultivation of aquatic products. Fengman Reservoir, also known as Songhua Lake, is 180 kilometers long and has a surface area of 550 square kilometers. The deepest section is 75 meters and the storage capacity is 10.8 billion cubic meters. The station has a concrete heavy-pressure dam with the powerhouse in front of the dam, a switch room and flood discharge tunnels. The dam is 1,080 meters long and the highest section is 91 meters. The top of the dam is 266.5 meters above sea level. On top of the dam is a 1.2-meter-high wave prevention wall. The powerhouse is on the right bank of the river in front of the dam. It is equipped with 10 turbo-generator units and one turbo-generator unit for the station, with a total installed generating capacity of 809,000 KW. The spillway dam is to the left of the main dam and has 11 spillway tunnels, with a flood discharge capacity of up to 9,240 cubic meters per second. The flood discharge tunnel is on the left bank of the main dam. The tunnel is 682.9 meters long and nine meters in diameter with a discharge capacity of up to 1,186 cubic meters per second. The main dam is built to reduce flood risk to once every 1,000 years. The normal water level is 263.5 meters above sea level and at 261 meters the reservoir has a storage capacity of 2.67 billion cubic meters when hit by a flood. The storage capacity for generating power is 5.35 billion cubic meters.
On the No. 2 Songhua River and at Huadian, Jilin Province, the Baishan Hydropower Station is the largest in the northeast grid. It has an installed generating capacity of 1.5 million KW. Construction of the station started in May 1975 and it began storing water on September 16, 1982. At the end of 1984, three generating units with a total generating capacity of 900,000 KW came into operation for the first phase of the project. Another two with an installed generating capacity of 600,000 KW for the second phase of the project began operating in June, 1992.
The station controls a drainage area of 19,000 square kilometers. In addition to generating power the station controls floods and has other benefits. It consists of a 149.5-meter-high concrete heavy-pressure dam, a weir with four 12 X 13 meter tunnels on top of the 404-meter-high spillway dam, three 6 X 7 meter tunnels for discharging water are 350 meters high, an underground powerhouse with an installed generating capacity of 900,000 KW and another powerhouse on the surface with an installed generating capacity of 600,000 KW. The dam is 423.5 meters high and the reservoir has a storage capacity of 6.812 billion cubic meters. Its highest normal storage water level is 413 meters. The capacity for water control storage is 3.54 billion cubic meters while the flood control storage capacity is 950 million cubic meters.
The Step Hydropower Stations on Songjiang River are at the foot of the Changbai Mountain in south Jilin Province and Wusong County on the upper reaches of the No. 2 Songhua River. They are one of the key national and provincial construction projects of the Eighth Five-Year Plan period. The project uses the rich water resources of the Changbai Mountain areas and diverts water from the Manjiang and Sandao Songjiang Rivers in Wusong County to the Songjiang River. The project includes three step hydropower stations in Xiaoshan, Shanggou and Shilong and the Songshan and Sandiao Songjiang water diversion works on the Songjiang River. These power stations have an installed generating capacity of 510,000 KW. Annual energy production is 831 million KWH. The dynamic investment is 1.67 billion yuan. Construction of the Xiaoshan Hydropower Station, the first at the foot of the Changbai Mountain, started in July 1994. By December 1997, the second generating unit with an installed capacity of 80,000 KW had joined the grid.
Situated at Lianhua Township, Linkou County, Mudanjiang, Heilongjiang Province, the station is the first large modern water conservancy project in Heilongjiang Province. The station has four 137,500-KW generating units and cost 4.7 billion yuan; more than 40,000 people had to be resettled. Construction started in November 1992. The first generating unit came into operation and joined the local grid in December 1996. Another three became operational in September 28, 1998.